Biology Vocabulary Chapter 1

the study of living beings and life processes
having many complexly integrated parts that are difficult to analyze or track; highly complicated
the molecular basis of or code of life in living (or once living) organisms
to appear dim, feeble, deficient or inferior
Scientific Method:
the process by which a general statement (a hypothesis) is written and tested through experimentation in order to reach a conclusion regarding the hypothesis
an assumption made in order to test and prove a logical conclusion
Theory: a scientifically acceptable and test hypothesis offered to explain observed facts
Scientific Law:
a theory supported by experimental evidence and many years of successful observations with no exceptions
a point of view put forth as authorative but lacking evidence
(ren e sans) a French word for the intellectual/cultural revival and beginning of modern science during 1300-1600
waste material eliminated from an organism
Geocentric Theory:
the theory that the sun and other planetary bodies revolve around the earth
Philogiston Theory:
theory that every substance contains an imagined ingredient, philogiston, which causes combustion
Dark Ages:
a period of barbarism and cultural decline from the fall of the Roman Empire (476 A.D.) to about 1000 A.D.
strict precision; exactness
(tre tes) a written exposition or argument including facts, principles and conclusion presented methodically
the theory that higher forms of life have gradually evolved by chance from inorganic elements and lower life forms into the complex diversity of life that exists today
Natural Selection:
the process which results in the survival of individuals or groups best suited for their environment
beliefs or principles held to be true by a group or organization
a sudden, violent change in features of Earth by means of a global flood, upheaval or convulsion of the earth’s surface
a student of nature, specifically plants and animals
a formal written composition often designed for publication
something that prompts a dramatic change
persons having a doubting state of mind, especially concerning religion
referring to white, Northern Europeans and a white-supremacy philosophy
(ray zheem) a socialist form of government
pertaining to the tiniest, most basic components of life in living organisms
a simple, single-celled organism
inherited; present at birth
Symbiotic relationship:
or Symbiosis: a friendly relationship between organisms of two different species that live together in direct contact; each receives benefit from the other
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid):
the molecule responsible for heredity; found in the cell nucleus
a substance that cannot be broken down into other, smaller substances by ordinary chemical means
innumerable; too many to count
the smallest unit of an element that still retains the properties of its element
the dense core at the center of the atom. Most of the mass of the atom is concentrated here with all of the protons and neutrons
a particle found in the nucleus which carries a positive charge and has a mass of one atomic mass unit (amu)
like the proton, a neutron is a particle found in the nucleus and has a mass of one atomic unit. However, a neutron bears no charge
the amount of matter an object contains (Matter is defined as anything that takes up space.)
a negatively charges particle which resides outside the nucleus of the atom and has little mass
Electron orbitals:
the region of the atom around the nucleus where electrons are found (also called energy levels or electron shells)
Atomic number:
a number representing the amount of protons in an atom
Atomic mass:
a number representing the sum of the protons and the neutrons in an atom
different forms of the same element, having the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons, thus, having the same atomic number but a different atomic mass
the number of electrons an atom must gain or lose in order to become stable
Ionic bond:
a chemical bond that results when one atom gives up one or more of its outermost electrons to another atom
a charged particle; an atom that has gained or lost an electron, thus acquiring a charge
Covalent bond:
the strongest bond formed by the sharing of valence electrons
Hydrogen bond:
a weak chemical bond formed when a partially positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the partially negative atom of a polar covalent bond in another molecule
charged with negative electricity; an atom having the tendency to pull electrons toward itself
when ionic bonds of compounds dissociate into separate ions
a substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution
a substance that decreases the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution
pH scale:
a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration which is the degree of acidity or basicity
a substance that minimizes changes in pH when acids or bases are introduced to a system
a chemical combination in a fixed ratio of two or more elements
two or more atoms of one or more elements held together by ionic or covalent bonds
Molecular formula:
a molecular notation or shorthand representing the kinds and quantity of different atoms in a molecule
Structural formula:
a molecular notation in which the atoms within a molecule are joined by lines representing covalent bonds
Molecular weight:
the sum of the weights of all atoms in a molecule of a substance
Gram Molecular Weight
or Mole: the number of grams of a substance that equals its molecular weight. A mole contains 6.023 x 1023 number of molecules, Avogadro’s number
Avogadro’s Number:
the number of molecules in a mole: 6.023 x 1023
a homogeneous, liquid mixture of two or more substances
: the dissolving agent in a solution; water is the most versatile solvent
a substance that is dissolved in a solution
a common measure of solute concentration, referring to the number of moles of solute in 1 liter of solution
Chemical reaction:
the rearrangement of atoms in matter that produce a new substance
the starting materials in a chemical reaction
the resulting materials from a chemical reaction
Thermal agitation:
speeding up the motion of molecules with the use of energy
Exergonic reaction:
spontaneous chemical reaction in which there is a net release of free energy
Endogonic reaction:
a non-spontaneous chemical reaction in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings
Reversible reaction:
a reaction that may go forward or backward
Equilibrium point:
the point at which the rates of the forward and backward reactions are equal. At this point in a reversible reaction, there is no net change in the concentrations of the reactants or the products
Irreversible reaction:
a reaction that may go only in the forward direction
Activation energy:
the energy needed to get a chemical reaction going
a chemical bonding in which the valence electrons are shared equally, causing the molecule to develop a positive end (where the electrons spend less time) and a negative end (where the electrons spend more time)
in the shape of a tetrahedron which is a geometric solid having four sides, each of which is a triangle (as in a pyramid)
a bond in which valence electrons are shared equally so that the charges are distributed evenly
electronically charges particles, formed at the interface of polar and non-polar bonds in substances such as oil and water
the holding together of like substances
the holding of one substance to a different one
Surface tension:
a measure of difficulty of stretching or breaking the surface of a liquid; water has a high surface tension because of hydrogen bonding of surface molecules
Capillary action:
the ability of a liquid to move up a piece of porous paper, or to creep through fine pores in the soil or in a leaf
Specific heat:
the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 gram of a substance to change its temperature 1° C
Thermal conductivity:
the measurement of the rate of heat as it is conducted through a liquid
Organic compounds:
those compounds that contain carbon and occur mainly in living systems
Inorganic compounds:
all substances that do not contain carbon. There are some simple carbon compounds such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbonate compounds (containing CO2) that are considered in organic
organic molecules consisting only of carbon and hydrogen
simple small organic molecules
or macromolecules: large molecules consisting of many identical or similar monomers linked together
Functional groups:
specific configurations of atoms that are commonly attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules. They offer a way of organizing the compounds into "families" and are usually involved in chemical reactions
Organic acids:
compounds that contain carboxyl groups (COOH) and amino acids; they release hydrogen ions in solution
compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen; includes sugars, starches, and related molecules
a structural polysaccharide in cell walls, consisting of glucose monomers
simplest forms of carbohydrates, also known as simple sugars: glucose, frucose, galactose; require no digestion to be utilized by body; provide quick energy
two simple sugars (monosaccharides) linked together chemically, must be digested before entering bloodstream and being used by the body
a polymer of up to over a thousand monosaccharides
a polysaccharide used by plants as excess sugar storage
a polysaccharide made and stored in animal liver or muscle tissue as a ready reserve of energy
a family of compounds that are insoluble in water, but soluble in nonpolar solvents; lipids are waxy, fatty or oily compounds used to store and release energy
Fatty acid:
a long chain of carbon and hydrogen with a carboxyl (~COOH) on one end
a class of lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four rings with various functional groups attached
a polymer of amino acids used for building cells, catalyzing reactions and other purposes
Amino acids:
organic molecules possessing both carboxyl and amino groups; are the building blocks of proteins
a chemical messenger secreted in one part of the body that effects other parts of the body
a substance that increases the rate of chemical reactions by lowering activation energy; catalysts are not altered by the reactions, nor do catalysts alter the equilibrium points of reactions
a class of proteins serving as catalysts in living systems
an element or compound that enters into a chemical reaction
decomposition or breaking down of a compound into other compounds by taking up water
the substance on which an enzyme works
Active site:
that specific portion of an enzyme that attaches to the substrate by means of weak chemical bonds
Induced fit:
the change in shape of the active site of an enzyme so that it binds more snugly to the substrate
Nucleic acids:
the information carrying molecules of the cell; known as the code of life, thread of life or blueprint of life; of two kinds: DNA and RNA
the study of heredity and variations in organisms in terms of composition and characteristics passed from one generation to the next
DeoxyriboNucleic Acid (DNA):
the genetic material of all cells; consists of two, long, thin polymeric chains twisted about each other in the form of a double helix
RiboNucleic Acid (RNA):
a principle type of nucleic acid that carries out the instructions coded in DNA
any object having a coiled or spiral form such as a metal spring or DNA molecule
ATP (Adenosine TriPhosphate):
energy storage in nucleic acids of cells, can release large amounts of energy in muscle tissue
AMP (Adenosine MonoPhosphate):
regulates many cellular and enzymatic processes
a comprehensive, master plan for a project, a detail plan of action
Hemoglobin opathy:
a condition resulting from one amino acid being out of sequence in the hemoglobin molecule
Sickle cell anemia:
a disease whereby red blood cells are deformed, fragile and easily ruptured, leaving victim with less red blood cells; can lead to kidney or heart failure
Optical isomers:
optical isomers having the same structural formula and the same bonds, but are mirror images of each other
an essential amino acid formed from protein by certain enzymes; found in milk and many other foods
Latin for left-handed; used to designate the different forms of optical isomers
Latin for right-handed; used to designate the different forms of optical isomers
Racemic mixture:
a solution containing equal amounts of both L and D isomers

Biology Vocabulary Chapter 2

smallest working unit of living things
a unit of length used in microscopic measurments; on thousandth of a millimeter
an instrument that produces magnified images of tiny structures
a large residence for monks (single men who have taken religious vows of seperation from sociey)
living and working during the same time period as someone else
the theory that living organisms originate from other living organisms
living substance, the material of cells
small threadlike fibers
a portion of the cell outside the nucleus which means "cell fluid"; contains many complex organelles
Electron microscope:
a microscope that uses a beam of electrons to examine a sample
Compound light microscope:
a microscope that uses lenses and light to magnify an image
Scanning probe microscope:
a microscope that trace the surface of a sample with a small tip call probe
prokaryote with a cell membrane and genetic material not surrounded by a nuclear envelope
a class of primitive, eukaryotic and unicelluar organisms
the transport of dissolved substances into cells
Digestion: the chemical breakdown of food into materials that can be absorbed and used by an organism for nourishment
the oxidation of food molecules which produces energy and releases carbon dioxide
the process by which living organisms produce needed substances
the removal of soluble waste materials from the cell
the removal of non-soluble waste materials from the cell
the release of biosynthesized substances for use by other cells
the function by which a cell either moves from one point to another or moves something within the cell itself
the function of a cell as it senses and responds to the changing environment 4
maintaining the status quo in a cell; maintaining the order in the cell and making sure that all substances needed by the cell are continuosly available
the process by which a cell produces more cells
a type of organism that does not contain neclei; typically a small, single celled bacteria
organisms made of cells, each of which contain a nucleus, a cell membrane, and membrains around different organelles
Cell mebrane:
part of the cell's outer boundary; contains a lipid bilayer
small structures within the cell that perform specializedf functions
a class of lipid molecules, each molecule having a polar, hydrophilic head and two, non-polar hydrophilic tails; important components of biological membranes
Cell wall:
tough, porous boundary that lies outside the cell membrane; found in plant cells and in some bacteria, but not in animal cells
a structual polysaccharide in cell walls; a tough, flexible compound that gives plants and cells their strength and rigidity
Chemical homeostasis:
maintaining the status quo in a cell; maintaining the order in the cell and making sure that all substances needed by the cell are continuosly available
Passive transport:
movement of substances across the cell membrane from regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration; occurs without cell expending energy
Active transport:
movement of a substance against a concentration difference; a process that requires energy
process by which substances spread through a liquid or gas from regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration
diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane; water flows from regions of high concentration of water to regions of low concentration of water
Carrier molecules:
a protien molecule embedded in the cell membrane lipid bylayer which is involved in facilitated diffusion of substances across the cell membrane; each carrier molecule is unique and designed to transport a specific substance
Facilitated diffusion:
diffusion of substances across cell membrane through special carrier protiens that falicitate the diffusion process
Osmotic pressure:
the pressure created by the differences in concentration of water in two regions seperated by a semi-permeable membrane; the region with more pure water will have a higher osmotic pressure than the region with less pure water; water will therefore flow from the higher concentration region to the lower concentration region
the rupturing of a cell due to excess internal osmotic pressure
a collapse of the cell due to water flowing out of the cell
the process by which cells take in substances by causing a part of the plasma membrane to surround the substance
refers to a person who is deceased
(plural is nuclei) a structure within the cell that contains almost all call's DNA; a large, dense structure that is considered the most important organelle in a cell; may be referred to as the cell's "control center"
the material in the nucleus from which chromosomes consisting of DNA and protiens are made
structures n the nucleus that form from chromatin when the cell prepares to divide
a small, dense region in the nucleus where ribosomes are made
small particles in the cell, made of RNA and protien; sites of protien assembly
Golgi apparatus:
network of membranes within a cell that, in conjunction with the endoplasmic reticulum, processes and transports protiens and other macromolecules; contains special enzymes that attatch carbohydrates or lipids to a protien
short, hairlike projection in some cells; often used to pull the organism though water with a coordinated rowing movement
whiplike projection found on some cells; usually used for cell movement
ATP (Adenosine TriPhosphate):
energy produced by the mitchocondria from chemical fuel and oxygen
Second Law of Thermodynamics:
the amount of disorder (entropy) in a system tends to increase, always tending toward less usable energy or energy that can do useful work
measure of the unusable or unavailable energy in a system; also the measue of disorder in a system
Free energy:
usable energy in a chemical system: energy available for producing change
Kinetic energy:
the energy of motion, which is related directly to the speed of that motion
Potential energy:
the energy stored by matter as a result of its location or position
Cellular respiration:
the process by which the cell converts a food fuel such as glucose into ATP in the presence of oxygen
ATP (Adenosine TriPhosphate):
energy storage compound cells; composed of a sugar, adenosine and 3 phosphate groups
a microscopic hair; plural is cilia; cilia are attached to certain kinds of cells that line certain body passageways
a series of reactions in which a molecule of glucose is broken down to produce a net gain of two ATP molecules
Coenzymes or Cofactors:
additional molecules that are requiered before and enzyme will catalyze a reaction; many are from vitamins and each can be reused rapidly
NAD+ (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide):
a coenzyme present in all cells and is required in cellular respiration
FAD (Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide):
a coenzyme present in all cells and is required in cellular respiration
Coenzyme A (CoA):
a coenzyme present in all cells and is requiredin cellular respiration
Respectively: referring a series of items in the order listed
PGAL (PhosphoGylcerALdehyde):
an intermediate molecule formed in the process of glycolysis
Pyruvic acid:
the end-product molecule of glycolysis
Anaerobic step:
a reaction step that requires no oxygen for completion
regenerated of NAD+ to keep glycolysis running in the absence of oxygen
the inner, infolded membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the third stage of respiration; increases the surface area within the mitochondrial matrix; enables the cell to produce larger amounts of energy
Mitochondrial matrix:
the compartment of the mitochondrion enclosed by the inner membrane; contains enzymes and substances for the Krebs Cycle
Krebs Cycle or Citric Acid Cycle:
a series of reactions in which the chenical bonds in pyruvic acid are broken to produce one molecule of ATP and five, high energy electrons
Oxaloacetic acid:
a 4-carbon intermediate compound in the Krebs Cycle which, when combined with acetyl CoA, initiates the Krebs Cycle
Citric acid:
the 6-carbon intermediate compound in the Krebs Cycle (or Citric Acid Cycles)
Electron transport chain:
series of molecules located in the inner membrane of the mitchocondrion that recieve high-energy electrons from electron carriers
large, complex molecules made up of smaller molecules linked togther to form chainlike molecules
formation of a compound or complex substance from elements or simpler compounds
fatty compounds formed when acid radicals replace 3 hydrogen atoms in glycerol
process by which green plants use the energy of sunlight to produce carbohydrates
a structual polysaccharide in cell walls; consists of glucose monomers
organelles found in plants and certain type of algae; harvests the energy of sunlight
flattened membrane sacs inside the chloroplasts; the location of chlorophyll and the photosynthesis process
principal pigment of green plants
Visible spectrum:
that part of the light spectrum visible to the human eye
Light-dependant reaction:
the reactio process during photosynthesis that requires direct involvment of light
Photosynthetic electron transport chain:
the process by which electrons are passed from one molecule to another in order to release energy
NADP+: (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate):
an electron carrier used during the photosynthesis process
the electron carrier NADP+ which has been converted by electrons
Light-independant reactions:
the reaction process during photosynthesis that requires no direct involvment of light
PGA (PhosphateGlycericAcid):
a 3-carbon intermediate compound produced during the Calvin Cycle
Calvin Cycle:
chemical pathway used to convert energy from ATP and NADP+ into sugars; also called light-independant reactions
Cell division:
process in which a cell divides into two independant daughter cells
Binar fission:
reproduction by the division of a cell into two essential equal parts by a simple, non mitotic process
process of cell division in eukaryotic cells in which each of thedaughter cells has identical DNA information as the parent cell
division of the cytoplasm that takes place during mitosis in most cells
process of cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes in the cell bu half; creates gametes used for sexual reproduction
reproductive cell that can unite with another reproductive call to form an organism
(plural of fungus) once classified as plants, but now as a seperate kingdom of organisms known as decomposers; includes yeasts, molds, and mushrooms
mainly one-celled eukaryotic organisms that do not fit the definition of plant, animal, or fungi
Somatic cell:
any human or multicellular animal cell except those involved with reproduction
threadlike bodies found in the nucleus of a cell when it divides; contains all of the cell's hereditary characteristics
strands of a chromosome that occurs in identical pairs; combined with its sister chromitid, constitutes a chromesome centromere: the part of a chromosome in which the chromosomes are attached
the point on a chromesome by which it is drawn to the pole during mitosis
cytoskeleton component that provides a tough, flexible framework of support for the cell; composes structures like cilia and flagella
having to do with mitosis
a tiny sac or cavity
one set in a pair of homologous chromesomes
Homologous chromesomes:
chromosome pairs of the same length and centromere position, containing the same kind of genetic information; one homologue is inherited from each parent
a starch-digesting enzyme found in human salivia and digestive juices
Rh blood factor:
one or more genetically determined substances in red blood cells capable of inducing an intense immune system reaction; lacking in Rh negative persons
from the Greek word "diplos", meaning double or two; having two of each type of chromesome
from the Greek word "haplos", meaning single; having one of each type of chromesome
process of nuclear division in which the number of chromesomes is reduced in half; the process by which gametes are procuced
forming pairs or aligning side by side
Crossing over:
exchange of parts two homologous chromesomes during meiosis
a condition in which regulation of the cell cycle has been lost, resulting in an uncontrolled growth of cells
rapid growth or production
protiens which control cell division and regulate the timing of the cell cycle
an amoeba-like cell that moves through tissue fibers, engulfing bacteria and dead cells by phagocytosis
the process by which cells take in large substances by causing a part of the plasma membrane to surround the substance
cells that carry impulses throughout the nervous system

Biology Vocabulary Chapter 3

the study of heredity
inserting a bud or shoot of one plant into a slit in another closely related plant so that the bud or shoot becomes a permanent part of the host plant
a gift of money, goods or property given by a person to his or her spouse in marriage
the scientific study of minerals, involved geology, chemistry and physics
the scientific study of plants
a collection of dried plant specimens systematically arranged for studying
the "superior" in charge of a monastery
Acoustical Effect:
an effect of sound
Doppler Effect:
a change in wavelength, observable when the sourcee of radiation (sound, light, etc.) is in motion
teaching or tutoring
segment of DNA that codes for a specific trait; the unti by which hereditary traits are transmitted
a stock of plants that always passes its traits to the next generation
male part of the plant that produces pollen
female part of a flower
offspring of parents with different characteristics
F1 generation:
the first hybrid generation in Mendel's experiment; the letter F stands for filius which means "son" in Latin
P generation:
the parental or original parents in Mendel's experiments
F2 generation:
the second generation in Mendel's experiments
(al la lee) the different forms of a gene; portions of DNA that carry the information for contrasting forms of the same genetic trait (e.g. red and white flowers)
Multiple alleles:
a gene that is determined by more than two alleles for a single trait
a sexual reproductive cell that must fuse with another such cell before development begins; an egg or a male sex cell that contains a haploid number of genes
Law of Dominance:
a Mendelian principle which concludes that in heterozygous condition, on allele of a gene may express itself and mask the presence of the other allele
form of gene that is expressed when present, excludes the recessive form; represented by an uppercase letter
form of gene that is not expressed in the presence of the dominant form; represented by a lowercase letter
outward manifestation of a genetic trait displayed by an organism
genetic composition and description of an organism
description of an organism that has an identical pair of allels for a trait
description of an organism that has a mixed pair of alleles for a trait
Law of Segregation:
a Mendelian principle which concludes that paired genes must seperate from each other during gamete formation (meiosis)
Punnett square:
a convenient diagram used to predict the genotypes of offspring
Independent assortment:
a Mendelian law or principle which concludes that different genes do not influence each other's segregation during gamete formation
Dihybrid cross:
involves two pairs of contrasting traits, either homozygous ot heterozygous; is illustrated by a 16-box Punnett square
Gene Linkage:
the condition in which genes are inherited together due to their close proximity on the same chromosome
exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during meosis
Incomplete Dominance:
genetic condition in which neither allele is completely dominant or recessive; results in a blending of the phenotypes but not the genes
genetic condition in which both dominant and recessive alleles are expressed
black and white flecked, spotted- variable black and white feathers
Polygenic Inheritance:
the additive effect of two or more genes which results in an inherited characteristi
the mathmatical principle used to predict the chances or likehood of certain events
a poison that breaks down microtubules
diagrammatic representation of individual chromosomes cut out from a photograph and grouped together
Autosomes or Autosomal Chromosomes:
any chromosomes other than sex chromosome somatic cells; any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg
X and Y chromosomes:
chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual
a fertilized egg
diagram that tracks the inheritance of a single gene through several generations of a family
a sex-linked genetic disorder which is the inability to see and discern certain colors; a recessive phenotype usually inherited by males
a sex-linked genetic disorder in which the blood does not clot normally; a recessive trait that is usually exhibited by males
molecules that stimulate the production of antibodies
something that has a distinct existence and objective reality
Molecular Genetics:
science based on the activity of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and the role of DNA in the production of protiens in the cell
to put together a substance chemically or biochemically
disease producing and extremely dangerous
process of reproduction in which genetic material is added to, or replaces portions of, a bacteria's DNA
any vrius that infects bacteria; also called a "phage."
Radioactive Isotopes:
a form of an element that has a nucleus that gives off particles and energy; isotopes of an element vary in the number of neutrons
the release of particles and energy from an isotope
compound made of a phosphate group, a nitrogenous base, and a 5-carbon sugar; forms the basic subunit of DNA
Chargaff's Rule:
based on the discovery that DNA nucleotides contain equal amounts of cytosine and guanine, as well as adenine and thymine
X-ray diffraction:
a technique in which the scattering pattern of X-rays is recorded on film to be studied
a term for the form of DNA, referring to its two adjacent nucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape
DNA replication:
process in which DNA is copied
material of chromosomes that consists of DNA and proteins
proteins which are attached to chromosomes which may play a role in protecting and organizing DNA
tiny particle formed by histones which help to fold and package DNA
natural inclination
a molecule that serves as a pattern for another macromolecule
Semi-conservative replication:
the method bu which DNA is repliacted; each daughter cell recieves one strand of the original DNA
DNA polymerase:
the enzyme which is responsible for joining the nucleotides together during DNA replication
Okazaki fragments:
new fragments of DNA that are joined together by the enzyme DNA ligase
DNA ligase:
the enzyme which joins Okazaki fragments together to form a new strand of DNA
RNA (ribonucleic acid):
a principal type of nucleic acid that carries out the instructions coded in DNA
Messenger RNA (mRNA):
a form of RNA that carries genetic information from the DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA):
a form of RNA molecule that carries out the instructions coded in DNA
small particles in the cell that are made of RNA and protien; sites of protein assembly
Transfer RNA (tRNA):
form of RNA that carries an amino acid to the ribosomes during the assembly of a protein
process in which the nucleotide sequence of a DNA molecule is copied into an RNA molecule
RNA polymerase:
the enzyme responsible for producing RNA from DNA, one nucleotide at a time
Genetic code:
language of the instructions in DNA and RNA that code for the amino acids in proteins
group of three nucleotides that codes for one of the twenty amino acids
process by which the nucleotides in mRNA are decoded into a sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide
three complementary nucleotides in transfer RNA that bind to a codon in mRNA
a region of the DNA molecule used for gene regulation processes
the repressor gene codes for the repressor protein; the repressor protein blocks a gene's transcription by binding to the operator
special region of DNA to which the repressor binds
something that prompts another entity to action; specifically, a substance capable of activating a structual gene by combining with and inactivating a genetic repressor
intervening sequences that is removed from mRNA and therefore not expressed
expressed sequence of mRNA; a region that remains in mRNA after the introns are removed
Human genome:
the complete set of genes in an individual (perhaps as many as 10 million)
to direct and cooridinate an activity (such as a symphony orchestra); to ensure a harmonious or efficient out come
inheritablr alternation in the genetic information of a cell
brown pigment that gives skin and hiar their color
sporatic absence of pigment in various body parts
iron-containing protein found in red blood cells that helps to transport oxygen to all parts of the body
failure of chromosome pair to seperate correctly during meosis
condtion caused by cells that contain three copies of a chromosome rather than two copies
agents which cuase mutations
Chromosomal mutations:
change in the number or structure of a cell's chromosomes; a mutation that affects the entire chromosome
the condition in which a celol has three or more sets of chromosomes
the condition of being polyploid
Gene mutation:
mutation that involves only a single gene
Point mutation:
gene mutation that involves a single nucleotide
Frameshift mutation:
gene mutation that involves the insertion or deletion of a nucleotide, thus changing the grouping of codons
gene mutation in which long streches of DNA (containing one or more genes) move from one chromosomes to another
the genes which are involved in transposition mutation; can disrupt transcription and change the type of amino acids inserted into a protein
a circumstance regarding as being due to chance
Genetic engineering:
manipulation and insertion of genes and DNA from different sources into an organism
Selective breeding:
producing a new generation by mating individuals with desired characteristics
mating of two organisms with dissimilar genetic characteristics
mating of organisms with similar genetic charcateristics
Restriction enzyme:
protein that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides
technique used in which electric fields are used to seperate biological material
Recombinant DNA:
pieces of DNA from two or more sources that are reassembled to act as a single DNA molecule
Cell transformation:
the changing of a cell's genetic makeup by the indertion of DNA
small, circular DNA molecules in some bacteria that can be used in cell transformation
recombinant DNA plasmids that serve as delivery agents or gene carriers
description of an organism that has been transformed or altered with genes from another organism
a hormone that regulates metabolism of sugar and carbohydrates in the body; needed by many patients with diabetes
a chemical that is produced in the body in tiny amounts; an anti-viral agent used against certain types of cancers and for certain skin diseases
the process of artificially producing an organism genetically identical to a biological organism
pertaining to accepted moral principles of conduct
Gene therapy:
a process in which a healthy gene can be directly inserted into a person with a malfunctioning gene; the goal is to provide the cell information needed to produce the lacking protein
DNA fingerprinting:
technique used to identify an individual from the unique pattern of DNA
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLPs):
dark bands revealed when pieces of DNA are seperated and identified by electrophoresis; can be used to identify and classify an individual's unique DNA
Forensic medical science:
a science dealing with the relation and application of medical facts to legal problems

Biology Vocabulary Chapter 4

a theory denying supernatural significance; the doctrine that scientific laws are adequate to account for all phenomena
detestable, worthy of contempt
to confirm the truth concerning a thing
Scientific law:
begins as a theory, is validated or proven true by many lines of evidence and many years of successful experiments and observations
Scientific method:
the process by which a general statement (the hypothesis) is written and tested through experimentation in order to reach a conclusion regarding the hypothesis
a scientifically acceptable and test hypothesis offered to explain observed facts
an assumption made in order to test and prove a logical conclusion
one who studies ancient life forms, such as plant and animal fossils
a theory that the irreducible complexity of organisms could not have come about by chance, that complex organisms illustrate plan and purpose
the study of God and His relationship to the world
a student of nature, specifically plants and animals
Living diversity:
the existence of many varieties of life in the plant and animal kingdoms
Catastrophist theory:
the theory that Earth experienced a major catastrophe such as a flood, in which most of Earth's creatures and plants were destroyed; their fossilized remains reveal that their descendents have changed very little over time
physical features of the land such as lakes, rivers and mountains
Natural selection:
the process that results in the survival of individuals or groups best suited for their environment
an expanse of water with many scattered islands
the largest division of geologic time
Artificial selection:
method of selective breeding of organisms to produce offspring with desirable characteristics
Natural selection:
the process which results in the survival of individuals or groups best suited for their environment
Survival of the fittest:
theoretical results of the natural selection process
Common descent:
hypothesis suggesting that species have descended from a common ancestor
a particular kind of organism; members of a species group possessing similar anatomical characteristics and the ability to interbreed
Reproductive isolation:
separation of different species that cannot interbreed
Gene pool:
all of the alleles of all the genes of the members of a population that interbreed
Gene shuffling:
the process that produces variations due to the cross-over mechanism during gamete formation
Gene flow:
the variation in genes that occurs when one population group breeds with another
Evolutionary fitness:
an organism's ability to pass on its genes successfully to its offspring
Normal distribution:
the bell-shaped curve that is characteristic of inheritance
Stabilizing selection:
the natural selection process that occurs when the environment continually eliminates individuals at extremes of a population
Disruptive selection:
the natural selection process that occurs when the environment favors extreme types in a population at the expense of intermediate forms, thereby splitting the population into two or more populations
Directional selection:
the natural selection process that occurs when the environment acts for or against an extreme characteristic and the likely result is the replacement of one gene group with another gene group
Genetic drift:
random change in allele frequency, often producing offspring that will be different from the original population by chance
Founder effect:
the change in allele frequencies produced when a new population arises from one or a few colonizing individuals
inheritable alteration in the genetic information in a cell
development of physical and behavioral traits that make organisms better suited to survive in their environment
the formation of a new species through evolutionary processes
Horizontal evolution (microevolution):
evolution or change of a n organism by natural selection so that the organism transforms into a more specialized form or variation of the same species
Vertical evolution (macroevolution):
the hypothesis that the same processes which work in microevolution, over eons of time, transform an organism into a completely different kind of organism, in a totally different specie group, such as a cow evolving into a whale
updated or modern Darwinism; combines Darwinism with the findings of modern genetics
a scientist trained to classify organisms
colored bands or rings applied to bind legs for identification purposes
interbreeding to produce new variations
the evolutionary process by which life forms evolve into different organisms with different characteristics as a result of their environment
Neo-Darwinism hypothesis:
includes updated or more recent additions to original Darwinism; same as neo-Darwinism
Massachusetts Institute of Technology; one of the world's leading centers of higher learning for scientific and technological education and research
a disease-causing organism
study of prehistoric life forms represented by fossilized plants and animals
distinct layers of rock in the Earth's crust
Sedimentary rocks:
rocks that form when salt, sand, or clay builds up in the bottom of a river, lake or ocean
Geologic column:
a continuum of geologic strata in the Earth's crust with a presumed time scale based on the types of fossils found in each of the strata
the study of the Earth's crust and surface features and their history
the hypothesis that the origin and development of Earth's physical features cab be explained exclusively in terms of current natural processes
characterized by kindness and goodwill
Index fossils:
"marker fossils" assumed to have been widespread in occurrence, and to have lived a limited duration; marks a specific age of strata in the geologic column
to claim a thing as being true
to pass from a higher, more functional condition to a lower, less functional condition; to deteriorate or move from better to worse
unusual, out of the ordinary
gigantic; enormous; colossal; of tremendous size or volume
Polystratic Trees:
upright, fossilized tree remains extending through several layers of geological strata; literally means "many strata"
accomplished by means of water; pertaining to pressurized water in motion
a small European wild horse about 4.5 feet tall with a long head, short thick neck and upright mane
an Old World wild horse having a short mane, long ears and short tail hairs; they run in large herds (up to 1000) having much endurance and speed (30-40 miles per hour), donkeys are domestic asses
any member of the highest order of mammals; includes man apes, monkeys, lemurs and tarsiers
the study of hominid life based on fossil remains found in the earth
any of a family of two-legged primates; includes humans and closely related primates
Homologous structures:
body parts that have a similar structure but not necessarily a common function
Vestigial organ:
structure in an organism that seems to have little or no obvious use
the tailbone; forms the lower end of the spinal column in humans and tailess apes
Biogenetic law:
also known as the recapitulation theory; an hypothesis that maintains that the development of an embryo retraces the evolutionary development of the organism
the process of embryonic development
the process of evolutionary development
Molecular phylogeny: evolutionary history of a group of organisms based on DNA and protein comparisons
Molecular clock:
hypothesis that mutations in DNA occur at a constant rate; used to estimate time frames of departure from a common ancestor
Phylogenetic tree:
modern version of the Darwinian tree of life; estimation of the time needed for organisms to evolve from a common ancestor
Cytochrome C:
a protein used in cellular metabolism
the branch of physics that deals with heat in relationship to other forms of energy and the conversion of one into the other
First Law of Thermodynamics:
also known as the Law of Energy and Mass Conservation
Closed system:
neither matter nor energy leaves the system, as in the universe
Second Law of Thermodynamics:
known as the Law of Energy Decay or Deterioration
Law of Entropy Increase:
states that entropy is always increasing, and conversely that energy is always decreasing
a principle of nature; from a Greek word which means the "breaking down or losing of structure"
Open system:
either matter or energy can leave the system, as in the earth
Law of Cause and Effect:
a basic universal law requiring that every material effect (result) must have an adequate cause that existed prior to the effect
Irreducible complexity:
the condition that occurs when by reducing the complexity of a functioning unit, the function is completely destroyed
Autoimmune diseases:
non-contagious diseases in which the body's immune system attacks the body's cells, such as in rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, lupus erythemotosus, multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease
Neural system:
central nervous system
Tommy gun:
a Thompson submachine gun; a portable automatic firearm using pistol-type ammunition and fired from shoulder or hip
the mathematical calculation of the likelihood of an event occurring; provides the basis or foundation of statistics
Mortality Tables:
charts showing the number of deaths recorded of various age groups during certain time periods
(1564-1616) considered to be one of the greatest of authors; he was a poet, an actor and playwright of comedies, histories and tragedies
one of Shakespeare's most famous tragedy-type plays
Punctuated Equilibrium:
a modification of Darwinism entailing a pattern of long periods of stability interrupted by episodes of rapid change in which new forms of species evolved
Intelligent Design:
the theory that an intelligent force was responsible for the creation of all life forms
Mt. Rushmore:
a mountain in South Dakota with 60 ft. likenesses of four United States presidents sculpted into its granite face over a 14 year period by American sculptor Gutzon Borglum

Biology Vocabulary Chapter 5

A set of physical properties such as boundaries or limits whose values determine the behavior of something
Astronomical literature:
literature pertaining to the science of astronomy
something capable of being measured; enough; sufficient
a scientist who studies the branch of astronomy dealing with the physical, chemical composition of celestial matter (things in outer space)
hypothesis that the origen and development of all things can be explained exclusively in terms of current natural processes
Young Earth theory:
lower limits of origen generally placed between 6,000 = 10,000 years
Old Earth theory:
Earth currently claimed to be 4.6 billion years old
Radioactive dating:
a method using half-lives of radioactive isotopes to determine the age of fossils and rocks
any of two or more forms of an element having the same atomic number and the same chemical properties but different physical properties
soil or sediments deposited by a river or other running water
Lord Kelvin:
born William Thompson; famous British physicist given honorary title; inventor of Kelvin Temperature Scale
Spontaneous generation:
the theory that life arose by itself, without assistance (spontaneously) from a "primordial soup" of watery chemicals and rock; the production of living organisms from non-living matter
containing heat-coagulable proteins such as occur in blood, egg white, muscle and certain other plant and animal substances
put together, combine; produce a substance by uniting various elements
the science of naming organisms and assigning them to groups
Immutable entity:
something incapable of changing
the study of the structure of organisms
Genus (genera, pl.):
classification of a major group of closely related organisms
smallest group in the classification system of organisms that share similar characteristics and interbreed in nature
a graded or ranked series, each being subordinated to the one above it as in military ranking
a code, rhyme or other device for assisting one's memory
classification of a group of closely related genera
classification of several families of similar organisms
classification categories of related orders
category made up of several classes of different organisms that share important characteristics
highest ranking classification of living organisms; one of the six major groups
visible to the naked eye
capable of spontaneous movement; mobile
lacking a nuclear membrane separating the DNA from the cytoplasm, has no other membrane-bound organelles
with a nuclear membrane surrounding the genetic material and with various membrane-bound organelles
organisms that are able to make their own food, such as plants
organisms that depend on other organisms for food
prokaryotic with a cell membrane and genetic material not surrounded by a nuclear envelope
the kingdom in which all bacteria were once placed
a carbohydrate which makes up the thick rigid walls of the members of the kingdom Eubacteria
Binary fission:
an asexual form of reproduction in which a cell divides in half to produce two identical daughter cells
a form of sexual reproduction that results in new combinations of genes
the process of reproduction in which genetic material is added to or replaces portions of a bacteria's DNA
a non-living particle that contains DNA or RNA and can infect a host cell
Algae (singular, alga):
single-celled, photosynthetic organisms classified as protists
Sargasso Sea:
a warm body of water within the lower-middle North Atlantic Ocean; named for its masses of floating sargassum (sargasso) sea weed
tiny algae organisms that float in the water
a sub-group of the Kingdom Protista which are heterotrophs and are mobile
a small, typically single-celled structure capable of growing into a new organism, either immediately upon leaving its source or after a period of dormancy
feeding on dead matter
stealing nourishment from a living organism (host); living at the expense of a host while contributing nothing
to swallow; take into the body to be digested or absorbed
Extracellular digestion:
process in which food is digested outside of the body cells
Chitin (kit-in):
structural carbohydrate that is the main component of arthropod exoskeletons; reinforces the cell walls of fungi; also found in certain insect skeletons
Hypha (pl, hyphae):
threadlike, branching filament that is the most basic structure in a fungus
mass of hyphae that grows in the food source and forms the body of the fungus
any of several pitted-capped, edible fungi
dark and wrinkled edible fruit of several underground European fungi
an agent capable of producing disease; from the Greek word pathos, meaning "disease"
small, single-celled structures, each capable of a sexually producing a new individual
the study of fungi
Ginko biloba:
only surviving species of an ancient plant group; has fan-shaped leaves; native to China and Japan
Nonvascular plants:
do not have true roots, stems or leaves; have no vascular tissue
Vascular plants:
have specialized tissue composed of tubelike cells that transport water and nutrients throughout the plants
a nonflowering seed plant; a seed plant in which the seeds are exposed to the air; literally means "naked seed"
represents a single surviving family of tropical plants; cycads resemble palm trees but reproduce by means of spermtozoids
flowering plant whose seeds develop within a matured ovary (fruit)
tiny seed leaf found in a plant embryo
an angiosperm that produces seeds with one (mono) cotyledon (cot)
angiosperm that produces seeds with two (di) cotyledond (cots)
waxy-covering on plant leaves to keep plants from loosing water by evaporation
Stomata (singular is stoma):
small openings in the epidermis of a plant that open and close to allow gas exchange and to prevent water loss
a skinlike layer of cells in seed plants and ferns; protects plant in various ways
vascular tissue that transports products of photosynthesis and substances from one part of the plant to another
vascular tissue that carries water and nutrients from the roots to the branches and leaves of the plants
Alternation of generations:
variation in a life reproductive cycle that switches back and forth between the production of diploid (2n) and haploid (n) cells
Sporophyte generation:
in plants, the diploid spore-bearing generation that reproduces by spores
Gametophyte generation:
in plants, the haploid gamete-bearing generation that reproduces by fertilization
Pollen grain:
tiny spores that contains the male reproductive cells of a plant
early stage of development of an organism (animal or plant) resulting from fertilization
"asleep"; temporarily inactive, but capable of resuming normal activity
Vector pollination:
spread of pollen from one plant to another by an insect or animal
active at night only
animals without vertebrae or backbones
creatures having backbones (vertebrae)
Radial symmetry:
arrangement of body parts that repeat around an imaginary axis running through the center of an organism; shown in cnidarians and some adult echinoderms
Bilateral symmetry:
body form of an organism that has identical left and right sides, specialized front and back ends, and upper and lower sides
concentration of nerve cells and sensory cells in the head of an organism
part of the arthopod phylum distinguished by having 8 legs and 2-part bodies with neither wings nor antennas, includes spiders, scorpions, mites, ticks and grand daddy-longlegs
having to do with the balance between the forces of gravity and water pressure
a hard, external covering or structure that supports and protects the body
Chitin (kit-in):
a structural carbohydrate that is the main component of arthropod exoskeletons; also reinforces the cell walls of fungi
a skeleton, mostly surrounded by muscle, within the body of an organism
organisms that can not manufacture their own food, such as animals, protozoans, fungi and most bacteria
Open circulatory system:
a system in which blood is pumped from the heart through vessels and open body spaces
Closed circulatory system:
a system in which blood moves only through blood vessels
featherlike respiratory organs of many aquatic species; used to obtain oxygen from the water
a tube that carries air from the larynx to the lungs; also called the windpipe
Flame cell:
a specialized cell with a tuft of cilia that conducts water and wastes through the branching tubes that serve as the excretory system in flatworms
Nephridia (singular: nephridium):
excretory organ that removes nitrogen-containing wastes from the blood; found in man invertebrates
Malpighian tubules:
structures that excrete nitrogenous wastes; found in man arthropods
concentration of nerve cells that form nerve cords or nerve rings around the mouth of some vertebrates
concentration of nerve cells and sensory cells in the head of an organism
clumps of nerve cells in the head region of primitive organisms such as the flatworm
Notochord (no-ti-cord):
flexible, rodlike structure that provides body support; unique to chordates
positional in the chest, thorax or pectoral region
Mammary glands:
glands that enable a female to nourish her young with milk
an abdominal pouch in marsupials in which the young complete their development
spongy, vascular organ in mammals that connects a mother with her developing embryo and provides a place for the exchange of nutrients and wastes
meat eaters
plant eaters
main branches of the windpipe that enter the longs and branch off; enable air exchange
tiny air sacs in the lungs appearing in grapelike clusters, surrounding a network of capillaries where gas exchange takes place
pertaining to birds and flying; word from which aviation is derived
an organism, such as a fish, amphibian, or reptile – that relies on interactions with the environment to control body temperature; a "cold-blooded" organism
organism, such as a mammal or a bird, that generates and maintains body heat through chemical reactions in the body; a "warm-blooded" organism
Endosymbiotic hypothesis:
a hypothesis that billions of years ago, eukaryotic cells arose as a combination of different prokaryotic cells
Cambrian explosion:
the phenomenon in the Cambrian sedimentary deposits in which all of the major invertebrate forms of life appear quite abruptly in the fossil record with no preliminary or intermediate forms leading up to them

Biology Vocabulary Chapter 6

an organism that causes disease
an organism that feeds on dead matter
organism that relies on other organisms for foof
an organism that feeds on a living host
organism that uses energy from sunlight to change simple, non-living chemical nutrients in its environment into living tissue
process by which green plants and some bacteria use the energy of sunlight to produce carbohydrates
the process by which bacteria use the energy of chemical reactions to produce food
the process by which food is converted into useable energy for life functions
Aerobic respiration:
respiration that requires oxygen
Anaerobic respiration:
respiration that does not require oxygen
Gram staining:
process by which bacteria are classified based on the characteristic staining of their cell walls
Cocci (singular, coccus):
spherical bacteria
Bacilli (singular, bacillus):
rod-shaped bacteria
Spirilla (singular, spirillum):
spiral-shaped bacteria
Flagella (singular, flagellum):
whiplike projections found on some cells; typically used for movement
Binary fission:
asexual form of reproduction in which a cell divides in half to produce two identical daughter cells
Steady state:
a state in which members of a population die as quickly as new members are born
form of sexual reproduction that results in new combination of genes
small circular DNA molecule in some bacteria that can be used in cell reproduction
process of reproduction in which genetic material is added to, or replaces, portions of a bacterium's DNA
small. typically single-celled structure capable of producing a new individual, either immediately or after a period of dormancy
type of asexual spore formed inside a bacterial cell that develops a thich wall enclosing part of the cytoplasma and DNA; enables the bacteria to prolong life
to enclose material in a kind of capsule
Copper ore:
rock bearing the element copper
a specialist in the science and technology of metals
powerful drug which kills certain bacteria by interfering with critical cell processes
the "friendly" bacteria found inside the digestive system of many organisms
the process by which white blood cells engulf and destro bacteria
Mother's milk:
produced by mamory glands in female humans and mammals for nourishment of their young
Exacerbate: to make a condition worse
Autointoxication: an abnormal state of body poisoning stemming from the intestines
scientist who searches nature for compounds or organisms that fight disease or assist with everyday jobs
Intestinal flora:
the microorganisms that inhabit the intestinal tract
Scour: to search for something rapidly, but with great attention to detail
a condition of severe diarrhea, accompanied by passage of blood and mucus; usually caused by infection
nonliving particle containing DNA or RNA and can infect a living cell
Lytic infection:
process in which viral enzymes destroy a host cell's DNA, ribosomes and resources in order to reproduce
Lysogenic infection:
process in which viral genes combine with the host cell's DNA , produce viral mRNA, and generally make new viruses
Messanger RNS (mRNA):
form of RNA that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus to ribosomes in the cytoplasm
any virus that infects bacteria
viral DNA that has become part of the host cell's DNA
Retroviruses: virus containing an enzyme that copies its genetic information from RNA to DNA
reciprocal relationship to which two organisms benefit each other
temporary projection from an amoeba-type cell; used for movement and feeding; cytoplasm streams into the pseudopod and the rest of the cell follows
small, typically single-celled structure capable of producing a new individual, either immediately or after a period of dormancy
Cilia (singular, cilium):
short, hairlike projections of some cells; in ciliates, used to pull the organism through water with a coordinated rowing movement
Contractile vacuole:
specialized structure in some protists used to collect and expel water
the larger of the two nuclei of a ciliate; stores multiple copies of commonly used genes
the smaller of the two nuclei of a ciliate; stores copies of all the cell's genes
depression on a paramecium used for the intake of food particles
Oral pore:
the food intake end of a paramecium where the gullet is found
Anal pore:
waste-discharging region on a paramecium
tiny, bottle-shaped structures embedded in the paramecium and discharged in time of need of defense
form of sexual reproduction that results in new combinations of genes
organelles found in plants and certain types of plant-like protists; contain chlorophyll, the principle pigment of green plants
Algae (singular, alga):
single-celled photosynthetic organisms, classified as protists
a light-sensitive region in certain protozoa
a firm, flexible coating outside the plasma membrane of euglena
Algal bloom:
the phenomenon occurs when algae reproduce so rapidly that they take over their aquatic habitats
Red tides:
the phenomenon caused by a group of dinoflagellates in which the sea appears to be red; a very toxic condition to most marine life
microscopic, plankton-like, single-celled creatures whose cell walls are made of silicon dioxide; the most abundant organisms on Earth
Colonial protists:
protists that live in large groups, or colonies
feeding stage mass of slime mold; also, any of a group of parasitic protists such as the organism (plasmodium) that causes malaria
Fruiting body:
reproductive stalk-like structure that produces spores
Tsetse fly:
a two-wing fly found in Africa, south of the Sahara desert
long-standing treatment for malaria; name for the quina tree (native name for the cinchona tree)
a derivative of quinine; used in treatment of malaria
WHO (World Health Organization):
a function of the United Nations
literally means gene mass; the complete set of genes in an organism
revolutions per minute
having the characteristics of a water-soluble, coaguable protein such as found in milk, blood and egg white
Molecular biologist:
a biologist who studies life at the cell and molecule level
creative genius
mass of hyphae that grows in the food source and forms the body of the fungus
Hypae (singular, hypha):
threadlike, branching filaments that are the most basic structures in a fungus
a zygote (fertilized egg) surrounded by a protective covering
Ascus (pl: asci):
tough sac of an ascomycete (fungus) that contains the spores produced by sexual reproduction
spore found within the ascus; from the Greek word askos meaning skin bag
poisonous mushroom "lookalikes"; from the German word tod-stukl, meaning "death stool"
Fairy ring:
a circular formation of mushrooms associated with elves, fairies and magical powers of mythical folklore
Athlete's foot:
a contagious fungal infection of the skin, normally affecting warm, moist areas of the feet; characterized by tiny, itchy blisters that break open
a chemical secreted by a living organism that kills or reduces the reproduction rates of other organisms
Oral thrush:
a fungal disease of the mouth, seen mainly in infants; characterized by white patches in the oral cavity
existing in two different shapes and forms
root-like structure which anchors a candida albicans and absorbs water an nutrients from its environment
causing an allergic reaction
yellow orange pidments found in brown algae; includes the xanthophylis and fucoxanthins (few-co-zan-thins)
Air bladder:
an air-filled structure found in rockweed brown algae which gives the organism buoyancy in water
Alginic acid:
a gelatinous substance extracted from brown algae and used as an emulsifier or stabilizer in foods
bright red pigment giving re algae their color
a gelatinous food source from red-algae; used as a culture media and thickening agent for foods such as pudding
a structural polysaccaride; the "woody" component of cell walls; from the Latin word cellula, meaning "small room"
a unicellular green algae
a haploid reproductive cell that can unite with another haploid cell to form a new individual
fertilized egg
in plants, the diploid spore-bearing generation that reproduces by spores
in plants, the haploid gamete-bearing generation that reproduces by fertilization
Alternation of generations:
variation in a life cycle that switches back and forth between the phases of diploid (2n) and haploid (n) cells; in plants, pattern of reproduction in which the organism alternates between sporophyte and gametophyte
spore cases in which asexual spores are produced